Love, springtime, every beautiful melody, mountains, the moon, the sea — all these speak to the heart but once. Nietzsche clearly believes in the interconnectedness of all our actions and experiences: that what someone is at any moment is influenced and created by all of their past. This is a life lived without regret, remorse or guilt, but open to love; of self, others, and the world as it is experienced in all its manifestations.
The apparent paradox between determinism and autonomy is an issue which continues to be debated in many areas of philosophy. Yeats echoes the connection between eternal recurrence and amor fati :. I am content to live it all again And yet again… I am content to follow to its source Every event in action or in thought; Measure the lot; forgive myself the lot! When such as I cast out remorse So great a sweetness flows into the breast We must laugh and we must sing, We are blest by everything, Everything we look upon is blest.
These works began with Daybreak , which collected critical observations on morality and its underlying psychology, and there followed the mature works for which Nietzsche is best known: The Gay Science , second expanded edition , Thus Spoke Zarathustra —5 , Beyond Good and Evil , On the Genealogy of Morality , and in the last year of his productive life Twilight of the Idols and The Wagner Case , along with The Antichrist and his intellectual biography, Ecce Homo , which were published only later. To endure the idea of the recurrence one needs: freedom from morality; new means against the fact of pain pain conceived as a tool, as the father of pleasure By using poetic fiction to show truth, and by implicitly endorsing the metanarrative reality of eternal recurrence, Nietzsche aims to follow Plato in motivating his doctrine better than he could with traditional philosophical exposition. In Carl Jung's seminar on Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Jung claims that the dwarf states the idea of the eternal return before Zarathustra finishes his argument of the eternal return when the dwarf says, "'Everything straight lies,' murmured the dwarf disdainfully. The "Vision and Riddle" chapter in Zarathustra is the other key evidence that Nietzsche ended his published book with Zarathustra's joyful response to the deathbed revelation of his life's eternal recurrence. But a proper reading of this observation cf. Maybe not.
The theory of the eternal recurrence does not provide a definitive answer, nor a foolproof methodology, for an assessment of our lives. Like much philosophical discourse, it leaves many questions unanswered. Is it always life-affirming to dismiss the possibility of mistakes, of remorse, and of regret? It may be argued that acceptance, of self and of reality, is the key to happiness and integrity.
However, we are also emotional beings, and sometimes our emotional response is in conflict with such reasonable advice. Our emotions, as well as our rational minds, are valid sources of personal truth and knowledge, and are very often a determining factor in our assessments of our lives. Nietzsche is urging a joyous acceptance of the totality of our experiences as a prerequisite for an authentic, responsible and life-enhancing mode of being, but there are difficulties inherent in this attempted integration.
For another problem, memory is the door to the past, but we are susceptible to selective remembering and forgetting. In his narrative poem The Prelude , William Wordsworth describes his own development as a poet and as a man, but he acknowledges the difficulties encountered in the attempted recreation of his life-story:. I cannot say what portion is in truth The naked recollection of that time And what may rather have been called to life By after-meditation.
The apparent paradox inherent in the concept of self-deception — How is it possible to deceive ourselves? James Strachey, p.
The stories we tell ourselves about ourselves are not always truthful or comprehensive; and the stories we tell to others about ourselves are sometimes coloured by our quest for recognition and approval. In the light of the insights developed by Nietzsche and Freud, complete self-knowledge looks like an unattainable ideal.
I didn't discuss the idea of "the eternal recurrence of the same" in that book, and this is an attempt to fill in this gap, showing how this all-important Nietzschean them fits into my interpretation. I tried to get Routledge to publish it as an appendix to my book when it went into papberback, but they would not go for it. So here it is. This article is actually friendlier to democracy than the title sounds.
It's an interpretation and a critique of a passage in Nietzsche. Flourishing Egoism in Social Philosophy and Policy , vol. A defense of a particular sort of ethical egoism. Hughes in Public Affairs Quarterly, vol. Keeping and using a gun is a civil liberty, like keeping and using a modem or fax machine. This essay, a contribution to a symposium I organized on gun control, is mainly a critique of Hugh LaFollette's claim that guns are inherently dangerous in a way that cigarettes and autos are not.
I argue that what his position really boils down to is that guns are morally repugnant because violence, regardless of context, is morally repugnant. Is Bad Conduct Always Wrong? Machan, Hoover Institution Press, Do you have a moral obligation to never make the world in any respect a worse place?
At least if you assume that morality is something that human beings must be able to apply and follow in the long run. This essay is a contribution to a symposium on drug prohibition I organized, a sort of sequel to the one on guns see above. Thesis: It is important to realize that illegal psychotropic drugs marijuana, LSD, heroin, cocaine, etc. Calling their value "recreational" only conceals this fact without giving a defensible reason for it.
Poetic Injustice The emotion of empathy is a source of moral temptations and illusions, as well as insight. The essay, a criticism of Martha Nussbaum's moral defense of literature, is a very short version written for presentation at The American Society for Aesthetics of a paper later published as "Sentiment and Sympathy," in the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism , Volume 62 Number 4 Fall Martha Nussbaum on the Emotions In Ethics , vol.
Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, , pp.
http://POTOLOKROSTOV.RU/cache/tragic/jume-stabile-weltfinanzen-die.php The change in the title, from "spoke" to "spake," was made by the editor of the journal without my knowledge or permission. To me, the change introduced on purpose? Literature as Fable, Fable as Argument. In Philosophy and Literature , October , vol. This file is a Google Drive link. Reason and Precedent in the Law. Machan , edl. How do you reconcile reason which requires thinking for yourself with the practice in the law of following precedent which involves following the thoughts of others?
This may be the last piece of Nietzsche scholarship I ever do, so I am very glad to be able to say I think it is one of my best. It should be interesting to those with only a passing interest in Nietzsche.
It's argues that his famous discussion of Master Morality and Slave Morality would have had very different implications if he had only considered a third type of morality, one the contrasts point by point in fascinating ways with both of the ones he does discuss. This third paradigm is what I call Trader Morality. This is a new version, revised considerably and updated, for the new edition of the Encyclopedia.
Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue. New York and London: Routledge, , pp. Character and Culture. Rowman and Littlefield, , pp. Boston, Massachusetts: Wiley, Co-authored with David DeGrazia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, A monograph on the classic film directed by Max Ophuls and written by Howard Koch. The book is in press at this moment. I also wrote three sections of this book: Preface, Ch. Philosophy in the Twilight Zone. I also contributed a biographical introduction about Rod Serling, justifying a philosophical reading of The Twilight Zone see below, under Other Work.
Some writings of mine that were part of the U W speech code controversy of the s. This discussion ended with the UW's unprecedented repeal yes, repeal! I think this is all, unfortunately, very relevant today My own telling of these exciting events begins on p. I don't seem to have my copy of this essay any longer.
Eternal return is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, . The thought of eternal recurrence appears in a few of his works, in particular § and § of The Gay Science and then in Thus Spoke. The idea of eternal recurrence—which Nietzsche presents as a sort of thought experiment—appears in Aphorism , "The Greatest Weight".
The more artificial taboos and restrictions there are in the world, the more the people are impoverished….